Urology Symptoms – Urologic Red Flags
Table of Contents
- Common causes of abdominal pain
- Urinary tract infection
- Colored urine
- Dehydration urine color chart
- Urine dip stick test specific gravity, hemoglobin, myoglobin, red urine
- Testicular torsion
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Renal colic (renal stones)
In this lecture I will be discussing some of the more common urology symptoms and problems you might encounter. I start out with the chart which you might be familiar with on common causes of abdominal pain.
UTI is very common and you will most likely eventually see cases. I provided a table that lists some of the most common causes of repeated UTI’s since most likely that’s the type of patient you will encounter. The signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis is discussed should things become worse and turn into a red flag. The urine dip stick tests can be very useful which I’ll demonstrate. You can use them to help in diagnosing dehydration, UTI, blood, protein, etc. From there I will go into many of the common causes of colorful urine some of which can be alarming and a red flag but most of the time is due to something less threatening. From there I get into hydration status and the proper color for urine when the patient is hydrated. I think this is very important since we often assume that the patient and provider are talking about the same color yellow when they
could be miles apart. This chart then becomes a useful tool to know when your patient is dangerously dehydrated or spilling myoglobin into the urine.
Urethritis can be due to several etiologies which are very important to discern since both the male and his partner are at risk. Some of the most common causes will be discussed along with their treatment and possible red flags. A true urologic emergency is testicular torsion which requires a fast and accurate diagnosis to save a testicle from infarction. It’s main differential is a disease which requires antibiotics verses torsion which is a surgical emergency.
BPH although not an emergency is so common that a quick review would be very helpful especially since you will want to make sure it is not prostatitis which needs antibiotics for treatment. However, should the patient not be able to urinate or pass blood it then becomes a red flag. Treatments and warnings regarding some of these drugs are included along with a list of all of the red flags.
Renal colic or passing a kidney stone is another true emergency requiring prompt intervention. It can have serious consequences for some for example when obstruction or infection occurs. The treatment options are discussed as well.